What is the evidence supporting the ARTIC Scale?

Items for the ARTIC were generated by content experts via a community-based participatory research approach (Hausman et al., 2013). The result included 8 subscales consisting of 75 potential items. A questionnaire was developed including these items, demographic items, and items aimed at demonstrating preliminary validity. The questionnaire was completed by a sample of 760 service providers, most working in human services and education.

Item analysis resulted in 45 items and seven subscales — the ARTIC-45 (five core and two supplementary subscales). It also resulted in a 35 item version excluding the supplementary sub-scales (ARTIC-35) and a 10 item short form including items from the core subscales (ARTIC-10). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the hypothesized seven factor model fit the data well. Internal consistency was excellent for the ARTIC-45 (α = .93) and ARTIC-35 (α = .91), and very good for the ARTIC-10 (α = .82). Subscale alphas ranged from respectable to very good (DeVellis, 2012). Test-retest reliabilities were strong with correlations of .84 at ≤ 120 days, .80 at ≤ 121-150 days, and .76 at 151-180 days for the ARTIC-45. Associations among ARTIC subscales and the validity indicators provide preliminary psychometric support related to validity.

Numerous validity studies are now under way using the ARTIC. One in the New Orleans school system found that the ARTIC scores increased significantly on all sub-scales following a two-day training on trauma and TIC.

The next formal validity study of the ARTIC Scale will be submitted from publication in June 2018.

For the full journal article in School Mental Health, click here Baker, Brown, Wilcox, Overstreet, & Arora, 2015 FINAL


DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hausman, A. J., Baker, C. N., Komaroff, E., Thomas, N., Guerra, T., Hohl, B. C., & Leff, S. S. (2013). Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: A community-based participatory research approach to measurement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(3-4), 249-262.


The Traumatic Stress Institute (TSI) helps organizations internationally transform their services and culture to one that is trauma-sensitive and trauma-informed. The TSI model melds Risking Connection and Restorative Approach staff training with system consultation to promote and sustain change.  Click here for more information or contact Dr. Steve Brown at steveb@klingberg.com.


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